Last Assignment Unit 8


1st_assignment .docx2nd_assignment .docx4 pages without the reference pager or introduction page, its the same patient…  the should be the same as the one you used on the 2nd assignment. In your last Assignment, you are going to visit Chester and his family one last time. Thus far you have considered your assessment, his treatment team, and the specific initial interventions that you might use as an ABA professional assigned to treat Chester. In this Assignment you will write your actual treatment plans!Consider the home/community and school environments. Construct interventions for target behaviors exhibited by Chester that would impact his functionality in the home/community and school environments.Write 2 intervention plans, one for each environment. Provide the specific steps to your interventions, written in language that the parents and educational professionals can easily understand.Discuss how you will collect data and how you will use that data to determine when to adjust your interventions.who will collect the data? and talk about the different data collection such as: frequency or duration of the behaviors, the severity, etc. Discuss your hypothesized outcome for each intervention, using scholarly resources to back up your prediction.


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Functional Behavior Analysis
Idenio Ramos
Kaplan University
Over the years, behavioral difficulties and developmental learning problems have been on
an increase. This increase has called for increased assessment as well as early intervention for the
same. Assessment is done prior to the intervention, and its purpose depends on the source of the
referral, the referral question, and the setting. Several things need to be done so as to achieve an
accurate and detailed assessment. This paper, therefore, addresses a situation evaluation,
detailing the plan for assessment, the family’s cultural needs, and the data to be collected.
Further, the professional best practices required in the process, and the role that professional
interdisciplinary team could play will be explained.
Plan for Assessment
According to Weiner (2003), interviews to assess for symptoms and behaviors fluctuate
considerably in how they are administered. Weiner (2003) shares that both structured and
unstructured interviews have their strengths and limitations. He goes on to explain that both
interviews will help the clinician obtain adequate collateral information. Structured interviews
are conducted in a standardized manner and the clinician will not differ from the interview
structure (Weiner, 2003). Clinicians conducting a structured interview are not flexible and they
often utilize close-ended questions (Whiston, 2013). Structured interviews are reliable and fairly
quick to conduct; however, they lack flexibility, which means that one cannot deviate from the
interview schedule (Weiner, 2003).
Weiner (2003) explains that unstructured interviews are sometimes referred to as
“Discovery Interviews.” This type of interview is more like a directed dialog between the
respondent and therapist. The interviewers do not often follow an interview schedule, and even
if they do, they will use open-ended question throughout the assessment in order to obtain
additional information (Weiner, 2003). According to Whiston (2013), during the assessment,
questions are asked at a random order. Unstructured interviews are flexible and can be changed
according on the respondent’s responses; however, they can be time consuming.
In Chester’s case, depending on the respondent, a structured or unstructured interview
will be conducted (Weiner, 2003). To go about this process, a number of things will be done. For
instance, the parents, relatives, and caregivers or teachers will be interviewed for the target
behavior and generally the overall needs. In most cases, the child undergoing the problem needs
to be talked to (Johnson, 2012). In this case, however, Chester will not be talked due to the lack
of words to express his needs and even failure to respond to easy redirection. Chester is aged
three years. Thus, one can conclude that he is a preschool kid. Now, according to Ms. X, her
husband, Mr. W does not like new people visiting his home. Further, he is usually away from
home for a couple of days due to his job. Thus, the assessment process will be performed during
the school free hours on a day when Mr. W will not be at work, at the clinic.
The manner in which the target behaviors and overall needs will be assessed will involve
various things. Firstly, the parents will be interviewed so as to acquire information on Chester’s
developmental as well as social history, and other information about his functioning level.
Further, during this parent interview, information about the history of the family’s
psychopathology and illness will be obtained. Relatives or other family members who directly
impact the family life will be interviewed so as to obtain more information. Next, the caregivers
and the preschool teacher will be interviewed, and behavioral checklists will also be
administered to them. Next, the kid’s adaptive behavior will be assessed. In this case, one major
thing will be considered, the degree to which he is in a position to maintain and function
independently. The parent, the caregiver or the teacher will complete a checklist of this adaptive
behavior. Lastly, speech evaluations will be made, and the sensory, gross and motor skill
processing will be evaluated (Johnson, 2012).
Family Cultural Needs
Chester’s family culture prohibits any strangers coming to their home. To the father, a
stranger coming to the home is a way of disturbing the family members. Perhaps, they believe
that the stranger will bring misfortunes to them. Now, since the father is the head of the family,
and his word is like a law, all family members need to adhere to this. His words should also be
respected. Further, their community is an extremely tight-knit Christian community. To them,
God is the sole healer. Thus they do not believe in “therapy”. They also do not allow
“psychological diagnosis” to be done to any of their members. As a result of this, their cultural
needs are that strangers should not come to their home since this is a kind of disturbance to the
family. Family members need not undergo any therapy or psychological diagnosis since God will
heal them. During the process of assessment, cultural competence would help meet these needs.
It is the ability of an individual to respond effectively and responsibly to different people from
different culture ways that preserve the dignity, as well as needs of the families, individuals and
communities at large. It is an important aspect for therapists, psychologists, and health care
providers. One can recognize that in this culture, the family members are extremely involved the
health decisions of the child. I will, therefore, involve these members in the assessment process.
Next, I will ensure that I have a personal contact with this community by attending various
events in order to know more about their culture. After this, I will build the community’s trust by
explaining to them the intimidating and unfamiliar procedures while still acknowledging their
perception of the disorder and care practices. I will also explain to them what to expect
throughout the assessment process and even intervention, detailing the ways in which it will
benefit the patient and the entire community (Narayan, 2012).
Data to Collect
A lot of specific data will be collected in order to plan for the intervention. This will
include: Genetic medical history data. It will include data about the post and prenatal events, the
medical and general health history of the child. Secondly, is developmental history data. This
will include data on the age of language use, social smiling, nature and time of play among
others. Next is family history data. Data on the family “blend” and size, level of education,
socio-economic circumstances will be obtained. Additionally, data on the parenting style and
whether the family has moved around or lived in the same place will be required. The data on
whether the parents once separated or divorced and had access or conflict disputes will be
obtained. Further, data on the difficulties experienced by the family will also be obtained. Next is
social history data. This will incorporate data on the social engagement of the kid with other
children, history of aggression and interest in people. Next is education data. It will entail data on
the child’s performance and experience from kindergarten to preschool, and will be obtained
from the teachers. Lastly is emotional history, and physical and neurological examination data
(Wachs & Sheehan, 2011).
Professional Best Practice
Incorporation of professional best practices is vital in ensuring a detailed and accurate
assessment. I will achieve this by doing various things. Firstly, during the parent interview, I
will ask questions that are aimed at identifying the disability’s onset. These include such
questions as whether the parents observed awkward social interactions, unusual play, and even
communication problems when the child was aged 2. Next, to obtain information about the
current functioning and the developmental history as well, I will ensure that I use a standardized
tool. I will also ensure that I issue behavioral questionnaires during the interview since they give
a more detailed profile of the kid from the parents’ and teacher’s point of view. Next, to measure
the wide range of behaviors, I will use the most valid and reliable instrument. Further, I will also
ensure that the behavioral checklists are completed by individuals who are aware of the child
very well, such as the mother, the caregiver or the teacher. Observing the child in different
settings is vital in any assessment. For instance, making regularly visits at the kid’s home
provide lots of information. However, assessment teams rarely do this. I will, therefore,
incorporate this best practice by regularly visiting the kid’s home in order to obtain valuable
information that can assist in the intervention. Since Chester’s family does not allow strangers to
their home, I will build their trust by explaining to them the importance of the visit to their child.
Lastly, to assess difficulties in language and speech, I will ensure that not only expressive and
receptive language is measured, but also pragmatic and social communication aspects (Wachs &
Sheehan, 2011).
Professional Interdisciplinary Team
In the functional behavior analysis, a professional interdisciplinary team could typically
include but not limited to a special education or general teacher, a psychologist, a social worker,
physical therapist, speech-language pathologist and an occupational therapist. Here, one can
conclude that this team consists of members from both mental and behavioral health fields of
examination. In the situation, the role of the professional interdisciplinary team could be to assist
in the creation or provision of effective support to functional behavior analysis. Sharing of
information among the team professionals can help in explaining this behavior. It can also help
in developing behavior models that make the difficult job of analysis much easier. The team
could perform the analysis, considering the manner in which any related psychiatric problem
could act as a possible establishing operation. The professionals from different fields could
participate in the completion of this assessment. Further, they could consider how this disorder
could increase related environmental events, and all this information could lead to hypothesis
development as well as successive interventions. The skills of one member of the team
complement those of the others, and when combined, they create a treatment plan that is costeffective. While interdisciplinary teaming is done in most cases, effective collaboration of the
whole team is of great importance to the patient. If the sharing portrayed by this team is absent,
then support will be hard, if not unattainable (Cipani & Schock, 2011).
To sum it up, an assessment process of individuals with disorders is important. There are
several reasons as to why it needs to be initiated. In the above situation, Chester was initially
diagnosed, and family has already qualified for services. However, an assessment still had to be
done in order to document for the intervention. The source of the referral is the Chester’s mother,
and the setting for the provision of the service provision is the clinic. It is the clinic because
Chester’s prohibits strangers visiting their family. Cultural beliefs of the family influence the
assessment, but cultural competency can help to identify ways of meeting these needs during the
assessment. Specific data on needed in the decision for intervention, as leads to the planning of
the correct services to be offered. Additionally, professional best practices need to be
incorporated since they lead to an in-depth and accurate intervention. A professional
interdisciplinary team could play the role of providing support to the functional behavior
Cipani, E., & Schock, K. M. (2011). Functional behavioral assessment, diagnosis and treatment:
A complete system for education and mental health settings. New York: Springer Pub.
Johnson, S. L. (2012). A clinical handbook on child development pediatrics. Chatswood, NSW:
Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier Australia.
Narayan, M. C. (2012). Six steps towards cultural competence: A clinician’s guide. Home Health
Care Management & Practice, 14(5), 378-386.
Wachs, T. D., & Sheehan, R. (2011). Assessment of young developmentally disabled children.
New York: Plenum Press.
Weiner, B. I. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Assessment Psychology. Haboken, New Jersey:
John Wiley & Sons.
Whiston, S. (2013). Principles and Applications of Assessment in Counseling. New York, NY:
Cengage Learning .
Evidence-Based Practices
Idenio Ramos
Kaplan University
There are more than a few interventions for handling the autism spectrum disorder
(ASD), Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD),
and others. However, only a few of these interventions have been proven effective by scientific
research. Now, these interventions that the researchers have proved to be effective are referred to
as the evidence-based practices and play a key role in the successful treatment of the autism
disorder among children. One major reason for utilizing these practices is that legally, teaching
practices need to have the basis of evidence of effectiveness. Therefore, this paper considers the
treatment for Chester, who has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, detailing the
evidence-based practices that can meet his needs and the support that one can provide so as to
ensure that these chosen practices make a sound and comprehensive treatment for him and his
family. Further, the environments that should be coordinated so as to provide the proposed
interventions are detailed, and the ways in which cooperation and support in each of these
environments can be garnered are determined.
In the described case, Chester, the small boy aged three lacks many words to explain
himself, and does not even readily respond to any simple redirection. According to the mother,
when she was giving him a birth, he lied down on his back and did not even sit up in order to
breath. In addition, his two elder brothers, Charles, and Clark have developmental problems. The
former has been diagnosed with ADHD and the latter with speech delays.
Evidence-Based Practices
The evidence-based practices that could effectively meet the current needs of Chester are
naturalistic interventions, discrete trial training, and parented-implement interventions.
According to Cook, Tankersley & Landrum (2013) naturalistic intervention is an evidence-based
practice that entails the teaching of behavior procedures in the form of naturally occurring
activities. They go on and argue that has proved to be effective in social interaction,
communication and repetitive and restricted behavior problems. In addition, it has also shown to
be effective for preschoolers all through to the high school level. In the described case, Chester is
three years old. Thus, one can conclude that he is a preschooler. Further, the failure to respond to
simple redirection, lack of words to express himself and inability to sit up imply that he is
experiencing communication, as well as social interaction problems. Thus, this practice could be
an effective treatment for him (Cook, Tankersley & Landrum, 2013).
Discrete trial training is another approach that can be used to teach skills in a manner that
is planned, controlled and systematic. Mostly, this practice is applied when the learner is in need
of skills or should learn skills that can be best taught in small and repeated steps. In this case,
each of the teaching opportunity or trial has a well-defined beginning and an end. Antecedents
and consequences used are carefully planned as well as implemented. Tangible rewards or
positive praise are the major ways of reinforcing the desired behavior or skill. In the case of
Chester, this practice could effectively be applied to increase his communication skills and the
ability to stand up on his own when laid down. This could be achieved by positively reinforcing
any of these behaviors (Cook, Tankersley & Landrum, 2013).
Lastly, parent-implemented intervention is another practice that could help meet
Chester’s current needs. This practice encompasses the direct use of individualized intervention
by parents so as to increase the positive acquisition of vital skills and learning opportunities. To
implement these practices, parents should undergo a structured training program. Just like the
naturalistic interventions, this evidence-based practice has proved to provide the desired
behavior, and can be applied to children aged two years to nine years. Chester’s behaviors
mostly exhibited while at home. Therefore, this practice would help eliminate the same, since it
is practiced in the home setting. The major problem is that his father and other family members
may not accept undergoing the parents training program, since they believe in God’s healing
(Cook, Tankersley & Landrum, 2013).
Support to Ensure a Comprehensive Program
According to Sturmey & Hersen (2012), a sound and comprehensive program is one that
caters to the patient and all their needs. From Chester’s scenario, it can be concluded that the
family’s financial status is not stable since the father, whose main job is that of a truck driver is
the family’s sole breadwinner. Therefore, firstly, I would offer support by providing the basic
needs necessary to meet the needs of both Chester and his family. Secondly, I would make
organized efforts and even advocacy programs to assist the family in meeting all costs incurred
during the treatment programming. Lastly, I would make arrangements to ensure that a wide
range of services is made available for Chester and his family. They include education, advocacy
and support groups among other special programs to aid in the improvement in the quality for
him and his family (Sturmey & Hersen, 2012).
Environments to Be Coordinated
The two environments that need to be cooperated so as to provide the proposed
interventions are the school and the home environments. This is because the naturalistic
intervention will be practiced both at the school and the home setting, while the discrete trail
training will only be practiced in the school setting. The parent-implemented practice will only
be applied in the home setting. In addition, in the case, the cultural requirement of Chester’s
family are that one should always wait for God’s healing, and this is an example of a cultural
barrier to the interventions. As a result, a cooperation of the home and the school environments is
vital, as it would eliminate some of these barriers. In addition, as Glicken, (2009) suggests, the
school environments constitute both the internal and external learning environments. Various
things that can be accomplished in these environments are structured activities, support in the
playground including the circle of friends and the buddy system, assistance by teaching of play
skills and social skills and even setting of classroom rules to eliminate some behaviors. Thus, the
school environment plays a major role in the treatment. Hence a cooperation of the two
environments is of great importance as far as the implementation of the interventions is
concerned (Glicken, 2009).
How to Garner Support and Cooper …
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