CE304 WIDENER Calibration Curve Lab 1 Revision Report Help

  

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Calibration Curve Report
Abdulmajeed Alrashidi.docx
by Abdulmajeed Alrashidi
Submission date: 01-Feb-2019 03:13PM (UT C-0500)
Submission ID: 1071712448
File name: Calibration_Curve_Report_Abdulmajeed_Alrashidi.docx (149.7K)
Word count: 2314
Character count: 13725
Calibration Curve Report Abdulmajeed Alrashidi.docx
ORIGINALITY REPORT
33
%
SIMILARIT Y INDEX
31%
5%
22%
INT ERNET SOURCES
PUBLICAT IONS
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Submitted to Widener University
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share.pdfonline.com
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www.ijsciences.com
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Maynooth
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<1% www.scribd.com Int ernet Source <1% en.wikipedia.org Int ernet Source <1% deq.idaho.gov Int ernet Source <1% documents.mx Int ernet Source Exclude quotes Of f Exclude bibliography Of f Exclude matches Of f Calibration Curve Report Abdulmajeed Alrashidi.docx GRADEMARK REPORT FINAL GRADE GENERAL COMMENTS /0 Instructor PAGE 1 PAGE 2 PAGE 3 PAGE 4 PAGE 5 PAGE 6 PAGE 7 PAGE 8 PAGE 9 PAGE 10 PAGE 11 PAGE 12 PAGE 13 Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Writing Scientific and Engineering Reports CE 304 SP2019 Technical Writing Kevin Wang Outline • • • • Introduction Structure of a technical report Writing by Sections Tips for report writing How Engineers Spend Their Time: Early Career 25-50 ______% Engineering: Designing, measuring, calculating, problem-solving ______% Communicating: Writing reports, letters, 50-75 memos, proposals; giving presentations, talking to colleagues, supervisors, and clients 3 https://ibrahimelsawy.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/communication-engineer1.jpg General Structure of a scientific Writing • In scientific writing, IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion, Conclusion) refers to a common organization structure Structure of a scientific /engineering Report • • • • • • • • • Title Page Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Methods and Procedures Results and Discussion Summary and Conclusions References Appendices Abstract Brief trajectory (objectives, major findings, conclusion) of the report Introduction Background information, importance of the work, objectives, scope of works Methods and Procedures Exp. Procedures Data Analysis The steps and equipments Equations, theories, statistic you used in the lab tools Results and Discussion Visually and textually represents research findings Interpret the findings: Primary results vs secondary results; Results vs. theories , Sources of error, Conclusions Summary of goals, results and discussion, implication of the findings 6 Procedures and Methods How did you do it? • Experimental Procedures and Methods – History of work completed – Make use of illustrations – Flow chart Do not provide a step by step set of instructions that are found in the lab manual! • Methods of Data Analysis – Formulas, equations, theory, statistics Results and Discussion • Results: What did you find? – Present data collected to support objectives (Tables & Graphs) – Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read – For the data, decide on a logical order that tells a clear story and makes it and easy to understand Results and Discussion • Discussion: What does it all mean? – Discuss results with regard to objectives, explain the data and significance of the information in the tables and graphs. – How do these results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section? – Do the data support your hypothesis? Comparison of results with theory or accepted formulas should be discussed. – Sources of error should be addressed with respect to your findings and the significance of these errors with respect to the objectives of the lab Results and Discussion • Discussion: What does it all mean? – Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies. If your results were unexpected, try to explain why – Is there another way to interpret your results? – What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? – Explain what is new without exaggerating Conclusions • Summary of goals • Summary of Results – Findings from the data You should provide a clear scientific justification for your work in this section The Conclusion should concisely provide the key message(s) the author wishes to convey • Implication of the findings • Summary of recommendations – Improve the data quality (accuracy or precision) – Improve the experimental methods A common error in this section is repeating the abstract, or just listing experimental results. Introduction Why did you do it? • Background (1st) What did you do? – Explain the importance of this lab in Engineering practice. • Objectives (2nd) – State the practical objectives of the lab. • Scope of works (3rd) – Provide an overview of the how the objectives were achieved, that is, what will be done in this lab. Move from general to specific: problem in real world / research topics / textbook --> your experiment.
Abstract
what you did and what the
important findings in your
research were.
• Single page alone! (requirement for the report format
in this class)
• What information should be provided in the Abstract?
– Objectives and Background Statement (1-2 sentences,
What did you investigate? Why?)
– Scope of work(1-2 sentences, What did you do?)
– Highlight Significant Findings (2 to 3 sentences, What did
you find out?)
– State major conclusions and significance. (1-2 sentences,
What do your results mean? So what?)
– One to two paragraphs total (150-300 words)
Abstract
• What to avoid:
– Do not include references to figures, tables,
equations, or sources.
– Do not include information not in report.
– Using jargon, uncommon abbreviations and
references
References and Appendix
• References
– Provide a bibliographic list of references used in the
lab report.
• Appendix (starting from an new page)
– Original data from lab, calculations (or at least one
complete set of well documented sample
calculations),
– Any other related information which supports the lab
report, but does not fit in the main report.
– All information and data needed to develop the
results of the lab or project should be presented
either in the main report or the appendix.
How to start it?
• Suggested writing order:
1.
2.
Perform all required data analysis
Have all the Figures, Tables, or Equations ready
Methods and Procedures
Write down the Exp. Steps ASAP after the lab
3.
Results and Discussion / Appendices
Put your answers for application problems in Appendices
4.
5.
6.
Conclusions
Introduction
Abstract
Major findings should be mentioned
7.
References
But we are not finished yet!
• This is just the “first draft” of your report!
Check ! Check ! Check!
Check List (attach this Table in the last page of your first two reports)
Items
Title page (format)
Table of Contents (format)
Structured abstract (Objectives, important findings and conclusion), single page alone
Introduction (Importance, objectives, scope of work)
Experimental Procedures and Data Analysis Methods
Results and discussion (rational thinking, present your data or results in a logical order, sub headings)
Conclusion
Figure legends
Captions for Figure (bottom) and Table (above)
Significant digits (round up to hundredths decimal for most of data) or scientific expression
References are superscript in text.
Text is 12 point, double-spaced.
Text is in Microsoft Word.
Acronym use is limited.
Report has been checked for spelling and grammar.
The report file name should be named in the following way: first name last name_lab#
Answers for Application questions (N/A if there is no application question)
Tips for Report Writing (I)
• Avoid vague generalizations
– “good data”, “very high temperature”, “good R2 values”
• Use Headings and Subheadings
Example: In Lab
– Spectrophotometer,
– Colorimeter
• Avoid the use of personal pronouns such as “we” or “I”
– Passive voice
– Student measured the absorbance of unknown samples with colorimeter.
– The absorbance of unknown samples were measured with colorimeter.
• Tense
–
–
–
–
Past tense to describe what was done
Past tense for results obtained
Past tense to describe findings, with present tense to interpret results
Present tense to refer to figures, tables and graphs
• Avoid long complicated sentences
20
Tips for Report Writing (II)
• Check Spelling and Grammar
– Affect (verb) versus effect (noun).
– Use spell-check and grammar-check!
• Always define Acronyms at the first use
– Open channel flow (OCF)
• Number all Equations, Tables, and Figures
– Eq. 1 or Equation 1; Figure 1 or Fig. 1; Table 1
• All tables and figures must have captions.
– Location of the captions: Figures? bottom; Tables ? top
•
•
•
•
•
•
All figures must have labeled axes
All quantities must have units
Detailed calculation process could be shown in appendix
Significant digits: 0.009923 ? 9.92×10-3
Be consistent in format
Proofread the report carefully before submit it
21
Report Grading Template
22
Caption location
No label for axes
No curve was shown
23
ICP 27Al Calibration Curve
ICP 27Al Calibration Curve
7.00E+05
700,000.00
y = 6072.3x + 19574
R² = 0.9908
600,000.00
y = 6.07E+03 x + 1.96E+04
R² = 0.9908
6.00E+05
5.00E+05
500,000.00
4.00E+05
Counts
400,000.00
3.00E+05
300,000.00
2.00E+05
200,000.00
1.00E+05
100,000.00
0.00E+00
0.00
0
20
40
60
80
Standard Concentraiton (ppb)
100
120
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Standard Concentraiton (ppb)
24
25
Results and Discussion (IV)
• The concentrations of Al were both very low in both
samples. The concentration of Ca in the tap water was
twice as high as that of the groundwater sample, which
can be expected because it is normal for tap water to have
minute concentrations of necessary minerals. However,
the groundwater contained far higher concentrations of
manganese. Comparable and low Ni and Pb concentrations
were observed.
vague generalizations
26
Primary data?
Secondary data?
Conclusions (I)
28
Conclusions (II)
29
References
1.
2.
BAD
CE 304 Water Resources and
Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual
Wikipedia.org
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and
Stensel, H.D. (2003) Wastewater
Engineering, Treatment and Resuse/
Metcalf and Eddy, 4th Edition. McGrawHill. Chapter 3.
Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and
Stensel, H.D. (2003) Wastewater
Engineering, Treatment and Reuse/
Metcalf and Eddy, 4th Edition. McGrawHill. Pp 475-500.
Introduction to Gas Chromatograph.
http://teaching.shu.ac.uk/hwb/chemistry/
tutorials/chrom/gaschrm.htm
Davis, John. (2006) Water Resources and
Environmental Enginering Labratory
Manual.” Widener University Dep. of Civil
Engineering. Pp 16-20.
30
“Writing is an art. But when it is writing to
inform it comes close to being a science as well.”
–Robert Gunning, The Technique of Clear Writing
I believe in miracles in every area
of life except writing. Experience
has shown me that there are
no miracles in writing.
The only thing that produces good
writing is hard work.
(Isaac Bashevis Singer, Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978)
https://blotterpaper.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/working-hard.jpg
31
WIDENER UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
CE 304
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual
Revised
2018
John F. Davis, Ph.D., PE
Kevin Wang, Ph.D.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………… 2
LABORATORY POLICIES ……………………………………………………………………. 5
REPORTS AND PROJECTS REQUIREMENTS ………………………………………….. 6
LAB 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF A CALIBRATION CURVE FOR A TRACER …………. 9
LAB 2 – OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS AND FLOW MEASUREMENT USING
WEIRS………………………………………………………………………………. 13
LAB 3 – ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT THROUGH A CONTINUOUS
FLOW COMPLETE MIX REACTOR (CFCMR) …………………………….. 18
LAB 4 – ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT THROUGH A PLUG FLOW
REACTOR ………………………………………………………………………….. 27
LAB 5 – EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENTATION ………………………. 43
LAB 6 – ADSORPTION KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM ISOTHERMS …………… 58
LAB 7 – COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION OF COLLOIDAL SOLIDS …….. 69
LAB 8 – MEASUREMENT OF WASTEWATER BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN
DEMAND (BOD) AND TREATMENT EFFICIENCY ………………………. 77
APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………………. 83
1
INTRODUCTION
CE 304 is an introductory lab course in water resources and environmental
engineering. The course provides hands-on experiments to allow students to observe and
quantify fundamental processes that occur in engineered environmental systems and
natural aquatic environments. Lectures are provided before each major lab to prepare
students with basic theory and address any questions regarding the experiments. Students
will be guided to apply the experimental results to design treatment processes.
Students will take this course as an introduction to lecture-based theory and design
courses with the philosophy that the learning process can be enhanced by first providing
an opportunity to observe and measure fundamental environmental processes. Prior to
this course, students should have taken basic chemistry, physics, and calculus preferably
through differential equations.
Students taking Introduction to Environmental
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Hydrology, Water and Wastewater Treatment should
benefit from taking CE 304.
CE 304 is a Writing Enriched (WE) course and is scheduled as the third WE course in
the civil engineering curriculum (Engineering Techniques –ENGR 111 and Materials and
Structures Lab – CE 206 are scheduled prior to CE 304). As such, the writing for this
course is expected to show improvement in writing skills from the previous courses and
continued progress toward professional level report writing.
A. COURSE OBJECTIVES
1. To introduce students to fundamental environmental processes.
2. To familiarize the student with basic measurement and experimental techniques
for open-channel water flow and water and wastewater treatment processes.
3. To guide students in applying experimental results for the design of water and
wastewater treatment processes.
4. To familiarize the student with basic statistics for analysis of experimental data;
5. To develop the student’s written and oral communication skills;
6. To expose the student to the interpersonal relationships involved in group work.
2
B. CLASS ORGANIZATION
1. Lab teams will be organized for each experiment. All experimental work will be
performed by the team as a group. Each student is required to submit an
individual lab report for each experiment.
2. Each team will perform 8 prepared experiments and an independent project.
3. Detailed instructions for the prepared experiments are included in this manual.
Since most of the technical material in the experiments will not have been
covered in lecture courses at this point in the curriculum, lectures are scheduled
prior to each experiment to provide the necessary background and answer any
questions. Students are expected to be familiar with the objectives, scope, and
content of the lab prior to the lecture and experiment. References are provided and
should be read prior to the lecture and experiment. Deviations from the lab
manual will be discussed by the instructor prior to the lab.
4. Safety policies are posted in each laboratory and in this manual (see Laboratory
Policies). Students are expected to comply with these policies at all times. Failure
to comply with these policies will result in reductions of lab grades and possibly
dismissal from the lab.
C. LABORATORY ORGANIZATION
1. A schedule of lab experiments will be provided to each group for the semester.
Each student is expected to read and be familiar with the objectives, background,
and procedures of each laboratory prior to conducting the experiment.
2. All students are required to be present for, and participate in, the experimental
work done in the laboratory. All excused absences require a written request in
advance and/or proper corroboration such as a physician’s note. Unexcused
absences cannot be made up and will result in the student receiving a zero for that
exercise.
3. All members of the group are expected to participate and contribute to the success
of each lab experiment. Tasks that could be coordinated within each group
include: set up of lab equipment, perform preliminary calculations and quality
assurance checks, obtain measurements, and record data. It is the responsibility of
the entire team to ensure that the best results are obtained.
4. One set of data should be recorded per group. The data should be compiled into a
spreadsheet and examined for completeness and accuracy. Once validated, the
data file should be posted via email to all group members and the instructor. The
data files should be printed and attached to the lab reports as an appendix.
3
D. GRADING
The grading policy of the instructor is summarized as following:
1. Lab reports: 80%. Refer the grading template in the appendix.
2. Course participation/attendance/assignments: 8%
3. Independent Group Project, Presentation and Evaluation: 12%
Student should submit the assignment (pre-lab questions) before the lecture each time.
Student should submit the lab reports online before the due time. Hardcopy or
submission via email will NOT be accepted and graded. Late submission without
official excuses will be subjected to penalty of the report grade (10% off per day late).
4
LABORATORY POLICIES
Most laboratory regulations are in effect for one of two reasons: to protect the student
or to protect the equipment. The following rules must be observed by all students
utilizing the laboratory:
1. Any accident which results in damage to person or property (yours or Widener’s),
no matter how minor, must be reported to the instructor as soon as possible. First
aid materials are available from the instructor and/or lab technicians.
2. Eye protection shall be worn when handling chemicals or equipment that
could cause an eye injury. Proper footwear is required (no sandals or opentype shoes).
3. Eating and drinking are not permitted at any time in the laboratories,
including computer labs.
4. Horseplay, which is dangerous in a laboratory environment, will not be tolerated
and will result in dismissal and a failing grade.
5. Most of the laboratory experiments are designed to be completed during
scheduled laboratory periods. If for some reason a group does not complete a lab
in class it will be necessary to make up the lab outside of class time. Makeup
time must be approved in advance by the lab instructor. Outside of class periods,
students may not work alone in a laboratory but rather, for safety reasons, must
work in a minimum group of two. When students have finished their work, they
must secure the room (close windows, disconnect power, switch off lights, cleanup work area, return equipment to …
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